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研究论文
磷对泥/煤混燃灰熔融特性的影响及矿物相演变规律
魏砾宏, 梁法光, 房凡, 马婷婷, 杨天华
2019, 47(2): 129-137
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采用灰熔点仪、X射线荧光仪(XRF)研究了无机非金属P2O5对城市污水污泥与烟煤的混烧灰熔融特性的影响,利用X射线衍射仪(XRD)、X射线光电子能谱仪(XPS)研究在各混烧温度下灰中含磷矿物在晶体和非晶体间的演变。结果表明,对于Al2O3含量较多且熔点较高的灰样,磷含量的增加可显著降低其灰熔点,P2O5含量在0-4%时影响最大,使其灰熔点降低126℃;但对碱性含量高的灰样的影响较小。低温灰中主要以磷酸铝(AlPO4)晶体为主,温度升高后,与硬石膏(CaSO4)等含钙矿物和赤铁矿(Fe2O3)反应生成晶体Ca3(PO42和玻璃相(Fe2O30.252(P2O50.748,磷含量增加可使灰中玻璃相(Fe2O30.252(P2O50.748增加,是磷降低灰熔点的主要原因。
煤燃烧过程中砷与氮氧化物的反应机理
邹潺, 王春波, 邢佳颖
2019, 47(2): 138-143
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应用量子化学密度泛函理论B3LYP方法,研究了砷与氮氧化物(N2O、NO2和NO)的反应机理。全参数优化了各反应物、中间体、过渡态和产物的几何构型,通过频率分析证实中间体和过渡态的真实性,并通过内禀反应坐标(IRC)计算以进一步确定过渡态。为了得到更精确的能量信息,在B2PLYP水平下计算各结构的单点能,并通过动力学参数深入分析其反应机理。结果表明,砷与三种氮氧化物(N2O、NO2和NO)的反应能垒分别为78.45、2.58、155.85 kJ/mol。在298-1800 K,各反应速率随温度的升高而增大。由于砷与NO2的反应能垒较低,其反应速率大于1012 cm3/(mol·s),说明该反应容易发生且速率极快。砷与N2O和NO的反应,在298-900 K,反应速率随温度的升高明显增加;当温度进一步升高,其增加的趋势有所减缓。
氯化亚铬脱除黄铁矿对桦甸油页岩有机质结构的影响
李扬, 刘清雅, 赵晓胜, 汤瑞祥, 卢政华, 石磊
2019, 47(2): 144-152
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采用元素分析、13C NMR、XPS和TG-MS技术考察了氯化亚铬(CrCl2)脱除黄铁矿对桦甸油页岩有机质结构的影响。结果表明,CrCl2可有效脱除有机质中的黄铁矿,脱除率为96.19%。CrCl2对有机质的碳骨架结构影响较小,脱除黄铁矿前后有机质中脂碳、芳碳和羧基/羰基碳的相对含量以及有机质的热解特征温度基本保持不变,但CrCl2可破坏有机质中的C-O键,使C-O/C-OH和O=C-O的含量减少,造成0.98%的有机碳损失和12.54%的有机质损失。CrCl2处理后,有机质的C含量显著增加,H含量稍有增加,O含量显著降低,使得H/C略微降低,O/C明显降低。另外,CrCl2处理后,单位质量有机质中脂碳的含量增加了5.28%,使其热解过程中产生了更多的挥发分,残留的氧化铬对有机质的热分解可能也具有促进作用。
石墨相氮化碳负载磷钨酸杂化材料的制备及其氧化脱硫催化性能
李旭贺, 方磊, 杨浩, 张健, 梁飞雪, 王海彦, 王彦娟
2019, 47(2): 174-182
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以1-丁基-3-甲基咪唑溴离子液体([Bmim]Br)、磷钨酸(H3PW12O40)和g-C3N4为原料,采用原位沉淀法合成了负载型[Bmim]3PW12O40/g-C3N4催化剂(BPWO/g-C3N4)。通过XRD、FT-IR、UV-vis、氮气吸附、TEM和XPS等手段对催化剂的形貌和结构进行了表征,并以二苯并噻吩(DBT)的正庚烷溶液为模拟油、过氧化氢为氧化剂,考察了各组分负载量、催化剂用量、氧/硫物质的量比(O/S)和反应温度变量等对其氧化脱硫效果的影响。结果表明,BPWO/g-C3N4具有Keggin型杂多阴离子结构特征,BPWO(20%)/g-C3N4催化剂具有最优的对DBT的氧化脱硫性能,在50℃、O/S物质的量比为6.0的条件下反应180 min,可以完全氧化浓度为800 μg/g的含DBT模拟油。同时,该BPWO/g-C3N4催化剂具有良好的重复使用性能,循环使用八次后其对DBT的氧化活性没有明显降低。
合成条件对磷钨酸负载的金属有机框架催化剂氧化脱硫性能的影响
张东旭, 宋华, 苑丹丹
2019, 47(2): 183-190
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通过一步水热合成法制备了大比表面积、高脱硫活性的磷钨酸(HPW)负载的金属有机框架HPW@MIL-101(Cr)催化剂,对其进行了FT-IR、XRD和氮吸附等表征,并研究了合成时间、合成温度、酸碱度及HPW负载量等参数对催化剂脱硫性能的影响。结果表明,随着合成时间的延长、合成温度的提高,HPW@MIL-101(Cr)孔道有序度提高;合成温度低于等于140℃时,不能形成MIL-101(Cr)晶体结构;酸性合成条件合成的HPW@MIL-101(Cr)的孔道有序度降低;随着HPW负载量的增加,HPW@MIL-101(Cr)的催化性能呈现先升高后降低的趋势。在12 h、220℃和中性条件下制备得到的负载量为3.5 g的HPW@MIL-101(Cr)催化剂具有最佳脱硫活性;在模拟油20 mL、催化剂用量0.24 g、氧硫比为8和50℃条件下反应120 min,对苯并噻吩、二苯并噻吩和4,6-二甲基二苯并噻吩脱硫率分别为99%、100%和99%;与HPW相比,苯并噻吩脱硫率提高了2.4倍。
BiVO4/SBA-15催化剂的制备及其光催化氧化脱硫性能
韩娜, 陈政利, 苏炜, 沈健, 任铁强
2019, 47(2): 191-198
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采用水热后合成法制备了BiVO4/SBA-15催化剂,利用XRD、SEM-EDS和N2吸附-脱附等手段对其进行表征分析,并在自制的光催化反应装置中对其静态光催化氧化脱硫性能进行了研究。结果表明,BiVO4/SBA-15催化剂具有SBA-15分子筛的介孔孔道结构,BiVO4均匀分布在SBA-15分子筛表面。BiVO4/SBA-15催化剂具有良好的催化氧化脱硫性能,在BiVO4负载量为15%、水热合成时间为18 h、530℃下焙烧3 h制备的BiVO4/SBA-15催化剂,对模拟柴油的脱硫率可达95.6%。
调控制备pH值对铁钼催化剂结构及性能的影响
卫敏, 程丽军, 袁善良, 薄其飞, 张彪, 蒋毅
2019, 47(2): 209-214
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通过调控共沉淀中钼酸铵溶液的酸度制备了系列铁钼催化剂,采用N2吸附-脱附、Raman、XRD、SEM、H2-TPR等方法对催化剂的结构进行了表征,并考察了不同酸度条件下制备的铁钼催化剂的甲醇氧化制甲醛催化活性。结果表明,钼酸铵溶液酸度影响催化剂的粒径、形貌及表层铁、钼物种的分布与富集。恰当的钼酸铵溶液酸度范围,优化了催化剂表层MoO3和Fe2(MoO43物种的比例,改善了催化剂的催化氧化性能,有利于甲醇氧化制甲醛收率和选择性的提高。
不同RuO2含量对RuO2-Fe2O3催化剂氨选择性催化氧化性能的影响
王慧敏, 宁平, 张秋林, 刘昕, 张腾祥, 胡嘉, 王兰英
2019, 47(2): 215-223
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采用溶胶-凝胶法(sol-gel)制备了一系列具有不同RuO2含量的RuO2-Fe2O3催化剂,并将其应用于氨选择性催化氧化(NH3-SCO)研究中。结果表明,所有RuO2-Fe2O3催化剂都表现出较好的低温活性,且RuO2含量对催化剂的NH3催化氧化活性影响显著。此外,利用BET、XRD、H2-TPR和DRIFTS等表征手段研究了催化剂的物理化学性质和催化活性之间的关系。结果表明,RuO2的加入增大了催化剂的比表面积。RuO2与Fe2O3之间存在的协同效应提高了催化剂的氧化还原能力,从而提高了催化剂的氨氧化活性。同时,RuO2含量对催化剂表面酸性影响很大,且催化剂表面主要存在Lewis酸性位点。
低温燃烧法制备Mn-CeOx催化剂及其NH3-SCR脱硝性能
纪生晓, 张玮坚, 郑玉婴, 朱建风
2019, 47(2): 224-232
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通过低温燃烧法(LCS)制备了不同金属硝酸盐与柠檬酸物质的量比的系列Mn-CeOx(LCS)锰铈催化剂,将其与共沉淀法(CP)制备的Mn-CeOx(CP)锰铈催化剂相对比,结合XRD、XPS、FESEM和H2-TPR等技术表征,对其NH3-SCR脱硝催化性能进行了研究。结果表明,金属硝酸盐与柠檬酸的物质的量比是影响Mn-CeOx(LCS)催化剂脱硝性能的重要因素。虽然两种催化剂中的锰氧化物组分均为无定型,但相较于Mn-CeOx(CP),Mn-CeOx(LCS)表面具有较高的锰含量与Oα/(Oα+Oβ)比,其脱硝催化性能也较高;同时,Mn-CeOx(LCS)锰铈催化剂上有更多的多级孔,有利于气体在催化剂上的吸附和反应。硝酸盐与柠檬酸物质的量比为36:22的Mn-CeOx(LCS)锰铈催化剂在80-180℃下脱硝率可达75%-100%;即使通入SO2,180℃下的脱硝率仍可稳定于74%。
CO2含量对污泥再燃还原NO的影响研究
肖香, 方平, 黄建航, 唐子君, 陈雄波, 吴海文, 岑超平, 唐志雄
2019, 47(2): 233-241
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摘要:
在模拟水泥分解炉的实验台架上研究CO2浓度(体积分数0-35%)对污泥再燃还原性气体析出特性及其对污泥与污泥焦还原NO反应的动态变化规律的影响。结果表明,污泥再燃产生的还原性气体主要为HCN、NH3、CH4及CO;当CO2浓度从0增加到25%时,由于CO2与污泥焦气化作用增强,导致HCN、NH3及CH4的析出量缓慢下降,而CO析出量显著增加,最终促进NO还原率从51%增加至61%;继续增加CO2浓度至35%,由于CO2的辐射吸收导致局部热不稳定性增强,气化作用的减弱导致CO析出量下降,且HCN析出量有较大幅度下降,NH3析出量变化不大,CH4析出量有一定幅度上升,综合影响使得NO的还原率逐渐下降至55%。研究表明,实验室条件下污泥再燃能较高效地对烟气中NO进行还原;机理研究表明,污泥再燃过程中同时存在对NO的气气均相还原反应和气固异相还原反应,实验确定污泥焦对NO的气固异相还原率仅为18%,因此,污泥脱硝以气气均相还原反应为主。
CO2在三聚氰胺酚醛纤维上的吸附分离
周智慧, 金灿, 张豪益, 梁晓蕾, 张富民, 肖强
2019, 47(2): 242-248
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以三聚氰胺、间苯三酚和甲醛为原料,通过水热缩聚反应合成了三聚氰胺酚醛纤维(PMF),考察了温度对PMF合成的影响。以扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、透射电子显微镜(TEM)、N2吸脱附和傅里叶变换红外(FT-IR)光谱等表征了PMF的形貌和结构,并采用体积法测定不同温度下CO2和N2在PMF上的单组分吸附平衡等温线。结果表明,在393 K下合成的PMF具有较大的比表面积(64 m2/g)和较高的CO2吸附量(1.83 mmol/g,298 K、118 kPa)。穿透柱实验表明,在298 K、200-600 kPa,CO2-N2混合气在PMF上均可实现有效分离。将PMF在873 K下,N2、H2及水蒸气等多种气氛中进行后处理,其比表面积和微孔孔容均显著增加,其中,在15% H2O气氛中处理后,样品CO2吸附量提高至2.83 mmol/g(298 K、118 kPa)。
负载CuO的Ti3+/TiO2催化剂制备及其光催化甲苯降解性能
周文君, 沈伯雄, 张芹, 王欣怡, 卢凤菊
2019, 47(2): 249-256
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通过在锐钛矿TiO2载体表面上负载Cu-BTC(BTC,1,3,5-苯甲酸)前驱体,还原处理制备光催化剂CuO-Ti3+/TiO2(Cu-TiMB),对其在可见光条件下气相甲苯净化催化性能进行了研究。结果表明,该改良方法制备的CuO-Ti3+/TiO2(Cu-TiMB)催化剂的活性是浸渍法所得催化剂CuO-TiO2(Cu-TiD)的2.68倍。CuO-Ti3+/TiO2(Cu-TiMB)具有更大的比表面积(147 m2/g)和较小的颗粒粒径(0.45 μm),呈现多孔状,CuO的分散度较高;催化剂表面Ti3+提供了大量的氧缺位,在400-800 nm波段的光响应能力显著增强。CuO-Ti3+/TiO2(Cu-TiMB)催化剂中Cu2+、Cu+与Ti3+形成的异质结构进一步增多了氧缺位数量,延缓e--h+的复合时间;氧缺陷增强了捕获吸附氧能力,通过金属氧化物价态变化增强化学吸附能力,提高了光催化性能。
Research articles
Production of liquid bio-fuel from catalytic de-oxygenation: Pyrolysis of beech wood and flax shives
Chetna Mohabeer, Luis Reyes, Lokmane Abdelouahed, Stéphane Marcotte, Jean-Christophe Buvat, Lucette Tidahy, Edmond Abi-Aad, Bechara Taouk
2019, 47(2): 153-166
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This study presents a detailed analysis of the catalytic de-oxygenation of the liquid and gaseous pyrolytic products of two biomasses (beech wood and flax shives) using different catalysts (commercial HZSM-5 and H-Y, and lab-synthesised Fe-HZSM-5, Fe-H-Y, Pt/Al2O3 and CoMo/Al2O3). The experiments were all conducted in a semi-batch reactor under the same operating conditions for all feed materials. BET specific surface area, BJH pore size distribution and FT-IR technologies have been used to characterise the catalysts, while gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and thermal conductivity detection (GC-TCD) were used to examine the liquid and gaseous pyrolytic products. It was firstly seen that at higher catalyst-to-biomass ratios of 4:1, de-oxygenation efficiency did not experience any further significant improvement. Fe-HZSM-5 was deemed to be the most efficient of the catalysts utilised as it helped reach the lowest oxygen contents in the bio-oils samples and the second best was HZSM-5. It was also found that HZSM-5 and H-Y tended to privilege the decarbonylation route (production of CO), whilst their iron-modified counterparts favoured the decarboxylation one (production of CO2) for both biomasses studied. It was then seen that the major bio-oil components (carboxylic acids) underwent almost complete conversion under catalytic treatment to produce mostly unoxygenated aromatic compounds, phenols and gases like CO and CO2. Finally, phenols were seen to be the family most significantly formed from the actions of all catalysts.
Research for structure and composition of coke on spent commercial residue hydrotreating catalysts along HDM bed
Yu-dong SUN, Xue WANG, Cheng WEI, Xiao-ning ZHAO
2019, 47(2): 167-173
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The spent residue hydrotreating catalysts were taken out from the different HDM bed axial position of a fixed-bed residue hydrotreating reactor of Petro-China. The coke on spent catalysts were studied by the technologies such as EA, TG, XPS, FT-IR and 13C NMR to get the structure characteristics and parameters. The results showed that the coke on spent residue hydrotreating catalysts located on different beds positions share some characteristics such as the kind of coke, the functional group, but the structure and composition were different from each other. Based on the result of each characterization technique, chemical structure models of coke were established. In order to ensure the accuracy of the structures, a software called gNMR helped to calculate the chemical shifts and predict the NMR spectra of the structure models. The model structures can be corrected to match the experimental results through comparing experimental spectra and the predicted ones.
A comparison of Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Ni-based catalysts in their performance for the dry reforming of methane
Yan XU, Xi-hua DU, Jing LI, Peng WANG, Jie ZHU, Feng-juan GE, Jun ZHOU, Ming SONG, Wen-you ZHU
2019, 47(2): 199-208
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Dry reforming of methane (DRM) with CO2 is of great significance in the environmental protection and the utilization of natural gas. SiO2 and Al2O3 are two typical catalyst supports used in DRM. To elucidate the effect of these two supports on the catalytic performance, in this work, Ni/SiO2 and Ni/Al2O3 catalysts are prepared by the incipient wetness method and characterized by BET, TEM, H2-TPR, XRD, TG and Raman technologies. The results indicate that the performance of Ni-based catalyst is closely related to the properties of support and the Ni/SiO2 and Ni/Al2O3 catalysts are rather different in their DRM performance. Ni/SiO2 catalyst exhibits higher initial activity but poor stability; its catalytic activity decreases rapidly in 15 h for DRM at 800℃. Because of the weak metal-support interaction, Ni species on the Ni/SiO2 catalyst is present as large Ni particles, which may promote the formation of coke precursors, viz., the multi-carbon Cn species, leading to the fast carbonaceous deposition and catalyst deactivation. In contrast, the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst displays a lower activity but a much higher stability; its activity in DRM keeps stable in 50 h. Although Ni particles in the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst is much smaller, the strong metal-support interaction promotes the formation of NiAlxOy species during the catalyst preparation process, which may lead to a decrease in the content of active Ni species and give the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst a relatively low catalytic activity in DRM; however, the strong metal-support interaction between Ni and Al2O3 is also of benefit to the formation and stabilization of small Ni particles, which can alleviate the carbanceous deposition and afford the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst a better stability.
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论文
预热处理对褐煤热解过程氧元素迁移的影响
李海杰, 李晓红, 冯杰, 李文英
2019, 47(1): 1-7
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摘要:
以中国呼伦贝尔褐煤为原料,基于工业分析、元素分析、傅里叶变换红外光谱、气相色谱-质谱联用分析,考察140-230℃预热处理对褐煤650℃等温热解氧迁移的影响。结果表明,与未经预热处理的干煤热解相比,褐煤经200℃预热处理后热解,迁移至热解水和半焦中的氧分别下降7.55%和1.43%,迁移至焦油和气体中的氧分别增加6.66%和1.61%,焦油中酚类氧增加一倍。褐煤预热过程中氢键的减少与热解焦油中正己烷可溶物所含酚类化合物的增加,经原位红外漫反射光谱分析,发现源自OH…π、OH…N和羟基自缔合氢键在预热过程中断裂形成自由OH·,导致酚类化合物中苯酚和甲酚含量增加。
温度及水蒸气对煤焦中氮赋存形态及演化特性影响研究
高建, 苏胜, 许凯, 崔晓宁, 刘利军, 张春秀, 汪一, 胡松, 向军
2019, 47(1): 8-13
[摘要]  (55) [HTML全文] (55) [PDF 1465KB] (55)
摘要:
研究水蒸气对不同赋存形态氮在热解过程中析出及转化规律有利于精细化调控氮氧化物的生成。利用X射线光电子能谱(XPS)仪分析了典型烟煤及其煤焦中氮的赋存形态,研究了温度、水蒸气浓度等因素对煤焦炭氮析出及转化特性的影响。结果表明,温度的升高以及一定范围内水蒸气浓度的增加有利于焦炭氮的析出,水蒸气浓度达到30%时,焦炭氮析出达到峰值;水蒸气的存在有利于煤焦中N-5和N-6等含氮结构物质从煤焦中析出,同时抑制N-Q和N-X等含氮结构物质的裂解。这是由于水蒸气的气化作用有利于芳香结构的分解,但同时高水蒸气浓度带来的H基团会与N-6结合从而形成N-Q,而由高水蒸气浓度带来的OH基团会促进N-6的氧化而生成N-X。
高碱煤含钠矿物沉积层的高温熔融及多相反应过程分析
靳虎, 王泽安, 阳维, 宁坚, 谢逸豪, 刘豪
2019, 47(1): 31-38
[摘要]  (55) [HTML全文] (55) [PDF 3652KB] (55)
摘要:
采用纯矿物试剂模拟燃用高碱煤时炉内受热面典型的灰沉积层化学组成,利用热机械分析(TMA)、TG-DSC分析、高温煅烧实验结合XRD、SEM-EDS表征方法研究了不同Na2SO4含量灰沉积层的高温熔融过程及矿物间的多相反应机理。结果表明,掺混Na2SO4后沉积层熔化特征温度显著降低,Na2SO4的主要反应途径与掺混比例有关,当掺混比低于20%时,Na2SO4与SiO2、CaO、Al2O3反应主要转变为CaSO4和钠的硅铝酸盐;掺混比大于40%时则主要与CaSO4生成低熔点的钠钙复合硫酸盐。富Na2SO4沉积层颗粒在800℃时开始黏结;900-950℃时,霞石、钠长石等钠的硅铝酸盐发生低温共熔,同时Na2SO4和CaSO4生成的复合硫酸盐开始熔融,逐渐形成液相;1200-1250℃时,镁黄长石与含钙矿物发生强烈共熔,温度超过1300℃后矿物完全熔融成为自由液相。
低温水热预处理对高蛋白小球藻N分布和藻渣热解特性的影响
袁松, 黄艳琴, 刘华财, 袁洪友, 庄修政, 阴秀丽, 吴创之
2019, 47(1): 39-52
[摘要]  (52) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 4505KB] (52)
摘要:
利用水热釜研究了低温水热预处理过程中高蛋白小球藻的水热降解特性,考察了125-200℃各相产物产率、元素组成、能量回收率和关键元素C、N的分布规律。结果表明,大量的C、N元素富集在水相中,且提高温度(>175℃)有利于脱氨反应进而提高水相中NH3的相对含量。随着预处理温度升高,N在油相产物中分布逐渐增加且在175℃后快速增加;固相产率及能量回收率逐渐降低,但同时其N/C和O/C也降低,表明水热预处理是一个提质过程。借助FT-IR、XPS、TG-FTIR-MS和Py-GC-MS对比分析了原料和藻渣的官能团结构和热降解特性。结果表明,水热预处理过程改变了C、N不同官能团的相对含量,与原料相比,藻渣中C-C相对含量增加,而C-N、C-O等相对含量降低;除了蛋白质-N和季胺类-N,预处理后藻渣中出现了少量吡啶-N。固体藻渣官能团组分含量和结构变化降低了热失重过程NH3和HCN的释放、及快速热解产物中含N杂环化合物的含量。
Ba2+沉淀法提取生物油馏分中的酚类物质
袁鑫华, 唐国徐, 张立强, 朱锡锋
2019, 47(1): 53-59
[摘要]  (56) [HTML全文] (56) [PDF 2093KB] (56)
摘要:
从NaOH试剂浓度、反应温度与反应时间三个方面,对钡离子沉淀法提取不同温度段收集的生物油馏分中的酚类物质进行了实验研究,并利用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)对提取效果进行了分析。实验结果表明,钡离子沉淀法对愈创木酚类物质的提取效果较为突出,且NaOH浓度(1.0-6.0mol/L)、反应温度(30-50℃)与反应时间(10-40min)对愈创木酚的提取率影响较大。在NaOH浓度为5.5mol/L、反应温度为35℃、反应时间为20min时,提取率达到最大,其中,三个温度段收集的生物油即低温水相馏分、低温油相馏分与高温馏分中的愈创木酚提取率分别为34.1%、33.8%和33.5%。
新型Brønsted-Lewis双酸位碳基固体酸的制备及其催化生物柴油的合成
吴昊, 范明明, 张萍波, 蒋平平
2019, 47(1): 60-65
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摘要:
以羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)与硫酸铁螯合反应生成的螯合物为碳前驱体,以浓硫酸为磺化试剂,制备新型碳基固体酸催化剂。采用红外(FT-IR)、X射线衍射(XRD)、吡啶红外、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、热重分析仪(TGA)、能谱仪(EDS)对催化剂进行表征。结果表明,该催化剂同时具有Brønsted和Lewis酸位点,是具有双酸位的碳基固体酸催化剂。将其应用到油酸与甲醇的酯化反应制备生物柴油体系中,考察了不同反应条件对油酸转化率的影响。在反应温度为70℃,反应时间为6h,油酸与甲醇物质的量比为1:10,催化剂用量为油酸质量7.5%条件下,油酸的转化率可达到96.8%。此外,对该催化剂的稳定性进行研究发现该催化剂有着良好的重复使用性和疏水性。
阴离子功能化生物柴油离子液体抗氧化剂[X][C6H5COO]的制备
隋猛, 李法社, 吴学华, 王霜, 李明
2019, 47(1): 66-73
[摘要]  (56) [HTML全文] (56) [PDF 3676KB] (56)
摘要:
设计合成了两种阴离子功能化离子液体抗氧化剂([MI][C6H5COO]、[Ch][C6H5COO]),采用核磁共振氢谱、傅里叶红外光谱对其结构进行了表征,并研究了两种离子液体抗氧化剂对小桐子生物柴油抗氧化性、铜片腐蚀性和油溶性能的影响。结果表明,离子液体抗氧化剂可有效提高生物柴油氧化稳定性,在添加量为0.3‰时,[MI][C6H5COO]的小桐子生物柴油诱导期提高了238%,超过了中国国家标准(6 h),[Ch][C6H5COO]的小桐子生物柴油诱导期提高了141%,未达到中国国家标准。进一步研究了两种离子液体抗氧化剂的油溶性,油溶性能从大到小的顺序为[MI][C6H5COO] > [Ch][C6H5COO] > GA(合成离子液体抗氧化剂的原料)。实验表明,合成的两种离子液体抗氧化剂中含有亲油阳离子的[MI][C6H5COO]综合性能明显优于含有亲水阳离子的[Ch][C6H5COO]。
同晶取代法制备Cu-Ni双金属催化剂及其催化CO加氢合成乙醇性能
郑华艳, 章敏, 付华, 张华成, 李忠
2019, 47(1): 84-91
[摘要]  (57) [HTML全文] (57) [PDF 2013KB] (57)
摘要:
采用定向同晶取代法制备了一系列镍孔雀石前驱体的Cu-Ni双金属催化剂。考察了前驱体结构以及催化剂表面组成对催化剂催化性能的影响,并采用浆态床反应器对催化剂的CO加氢制乙醇性能进行评价。实验结果表明,采用定向同晶取代法可以制备出(Cu,Ni)2CO3(OH)2纯物相,取代后的Ni2+主要富集在前驱体(Cu,Ni)2CO3(OH)2表面。焙烧后形成的(Cux,Ni1-x)O固溶体均匀地分散在CuO晶体结构中。还原后的催化剂中Cu、Ni相互均匀分散形成活性界面,促进了低碳醇的合成。其中,不连续分布的Ni活性位点阻止了碳链的进一步增长,从而提高了乙醇选择性。当Ni/Cu原料比为45:100时,(Cux,Ni1-x)O固溶体与CuO之间有较强的相互作用,表现出最好的反应活性和乙醇选择性。
负载Fe2O3的Zr基钙钛矿催化剂对逆水煤气反应的影响
牛茹洁, 王成章, 刘晓越, 易春雄, 陈梁, 米铁, 吴正舜
2019, 47(1): 92-97
[摘要]  (65) [HTML全文] (65) [PDF 2077KB] (65)
摘要:
采用固相反应法制备了钙钛矿结构的BaZr0.9Y0.1O3,并用BaZr0.9Y0.1O3作为载体负载Fe2O3,通过X射线衍射分析(XRD)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)观察负载型催化剂的晶相结构和微观形貌,同时考察了制备的催化剂的逆水煤气反应催化活性。结果表明,BaZr0.9Y0.1O3粉体1200℃煅烧5h时,负载型催化剂具有较好的催化活性;BaZr0.9Y0.1O3对逆水煤气反应有一定的催化作用,负载少量的Fe2O3催化剂可以明显促进CO2还原,在空速为1.13h-1,温度为650℃时,CO收率可以达到31%;催化剂经过长时间运行催化效果良好,制备的催化剂活性较稳定。
Cr掺杂Cu2O的光催化性质的第一性原理研究
吕巧雅, 李龙龙, 李亚方, 毛金花, 陈婷, 赵燕杰, 刘立强, 李鲁艳
2019, 47(1): 98-103
[摘要]  (52) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 2116KB] (52)
摘要:
采用第一性原理计算的方法,研究了不同浓度及不同位置Cr掺杂Cu2O体系的缺陷形成能、电子结构和可见光区域的光催化性质及产生机理。结果表明,本征Cu2O显示半导体特性,在可见光区域吸收很弱;不同浓度、不同位置的Cr掺杂体系均是稳定的,显示金属特性。与本征Cu2O相比,随着Cr掺杂浓度的增大,体系在可见光范围内的吸收峰均有不同程度的增强,并且两个Cr原子近邻掺杂时可见光区域的吸收系数最大,光催化效率最强。态密度分析发现,Cr掺杂体系在可见光范围的吸收主要由Cr 3d态电子的带内跃迁产生;不同掺杂浓度和结构构型主要影响材料在长波长段的物理性质,而对短波长段的性质影响很小。因此,通过增大Cr掺杂浓度及调控掺杂位置可以提高Cu2O在可见光区域的光催化效率,推动Cu2O在光催化方面的发展。
EMIES/p-TsOH型低共熔溶剂的合成及其氧化脱硫性能的研究
王鑫博, 李秀萍, 赵荣祥
2019, 47(1): 104-112
[摘要]  (59) [HTML全文] (59) [PDF 2098KB] (59)
摘要:
通过1-乙基-3-甲基咪唑硫酸乙酯离子液体(EMIES)和对甲苯磺酸(p-TsOH)的混合物制备EMIES/p-TsOH型低共熔溶剂。其结构特征通过红外光谱、氢谱和热重技术进行了分析。并以EMIES/p-TsOH作为催化剂与萃取剂,H2O2作为氧化剂研究了其对模拟油中的硫化物的脱除性能。考察了反应温度、n(H2O2)/n(S)比、低共熔溶剂加入量及硫化物类型对脱硫效果的影响。在最佳的条件下,模拟油中二苯并噻吩(DBT)、4,6-二甲基二苯并噻吩(4,6-DMDBT)和苯并噻吩(BT)的脱除率分别为96.2%、92.2%和88.8%。经过五次循环使用后,DBT的脱除率仍达到93.6%。对该脱硫体系进行了动力学分析,其表观活化能为66.4kJ/mol。
负载Mn的Fe基MOFs脱汞剂烟气脱汞研究
张晓奇, 沈伯雄, 张笑, 陈叮叮
2019, 47(1): 113-120
[摘要]  (52) [HTML全文] (52) [PDF 976KB] (52)
摘要:
基于Fe基金属有机骨架(MOFS)作为载体,采用浸渍法制备了负载6% Mn的Mn/MIL-100(Fe)脱汞剂。在模拟烟气中,搭建固定床研究了Mn/MIF-100(Fe)脱除单质汞(Hg0)性能。采用X射线衍射分析(XRD)、X射线电子能谱(XPS)、N2吸附-脱附(BET)和热重分析(TGA)对材料进行表征。研究表明,Mn/MIF-100(Fe)脱除单质汞(Hg0)效率较高,在250℃,空速(GHSV)为180000h-1时,脱汞(Hg0)效率达82%以上。Mn/MIF-100(Fe)主要的脱汞机理是催化氧化,Mn的负载促进了汞的吸附,并随着烟气温度的提高,单质汞的氧化效率逐渐提高。O2和NO促进汞的脱除,SO2和NH3抑制汞的脱除。Mn/MIL-100(Fe)整体上对复杂烟气的适应能力强。
垃圾衍生燃料热解半焦气化过程中HCl与H2S析出规律
杨文申, 林均衡, 阴秀丽, 吴创之
2019, 47(1): 121-128
[摘要]  (58) [HTML全文] (58) [PDF 840KB] (58)
摘要:
通过水平管式气化炉和化学吸收法,对比研究了矿化垃圾热解半焦(ARC)和常规垃圾热解半焦(NRC)在水蒸气和CO2气化过程中腐蚀性气体(HCl和H2S)的析出特性,考察了气化温度、气化介质类型和流量对腐蚀性气体析出特性的影响。当气化温度升至950℃,ARC在水蒸气气化过程中的碳气化率、HCl和H2S产率分别为66.1%、100%和74.9%,而其在CO2气化过程中的碳气化率、HCl和H2S产率分别为77.8%、100%和2.9%;NRC在水蒸气气化过程中的碳气化率、HCl和H2S产率分别为98.8%、100%和53.7%,而其在CO2气化过程中的碳气化率、HCl和H2S产率分别为100%、96.2%和10.3%。以NRC为原料,考察了水蒸气和CO2流量对其HCl和CO2析出特性的影响。NRC的HCl和H2S产率均随水蒸气流量增加而增加,但当水碳比大于等于3.3时,其促进作用不再明显。NRC的HCl产率随CO2流量的增加而增加,而H2S产率随CO2流量的增加而减小。
Articles
Interaction between low-rank coal and biomass during degradative solvent extraction
Yi-ming JIAN, Xian LI, Xian-qing ZHU, Ryuichi ASHIDA, Nakorn WORASUWANNARAK, Zhen-zhong HU, Guang-qian LUO, Hong YAO, Mei ZHONG, Jing-mei LIU, Feng-yun MA, Kouichi MIURA
2019, 47(1): 14-22
[摘要]  (62) [HTML全文] (62) [PDF 4240KB] (62)
摘要:
A degradative solvent extraction at around 350℃ for low-rank coal or biomass wastes upgrading and fractionation was proposed in our previous work. The extraction yield of low-rank coal is relatively lower than that of biomass. In this work the blends of low-rank coal and biomass were treated by this method at 350℃ to investigate the interaction between them. The results showed that the yields and elemental compositions of the extracts obtained from the blends were slight different to the calculated results, which were calculated by assuming that there was no interaction between the coal and biomass. The slight promotion of yield was judged to be caused by the catalytic action of the minerals in the coal for thermal decomposition of biomass. It was worth to note that the elemental composition, molecular weight distribution, chemical structure, thermal decomposition behavior and thermoplastic behavior of the extracts obtained from low-rank coal, biomass and their blend, were rather similar to each other, independent of the properties of the raw feedstocks. Overall, the interaction between low-rank coal and biomass during the extraction was not significant. On the other hand, the proposed degradative solvent extraction method was fit not only by single low-rank coal and biomass but also by their blends to produce the product having similar physicochemical properties. This implied that an industrial system of degradative solvent extraction can use coal, biomass or their blends as feedstock at the same time without modification or adjustment.
Liquefaction of thermal extracts from co-thermal dissolution of a sub-bituminous coal with lignin and reusability of Ni-Mo-S/Al2O3 catalyst
De-hai ZOU, Xue YANG, Heng-fu SHUI, Xiao-ling WANG, Chun-xiu PAN, Zhi-cai WANG, Zhi-ping LEI, Shi-biao REN, Shi-gang KANG, Zhan-ku LI, Jing-chong YAN, Charles Chunbao XU
2019, 47(1): 23-30
[摘要]  (86) [HTML全文] (86) [PDF 907KB] (86)
摘要:
Four thermal dissolution soluble fractions (TDSFs) with different thermal dissolution soluble yields (TDSYs) obtained from thermal and co-thermal dissolutions (CTDs) of a Chinese sub-bituminous Shenfu (SF) coal and lignin were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR and synchronous fluorescence spectrum measurements. The hydro-liquefaction properties of the four TDSFs and SF raw coal with and without catalyst were compared and the recycled use property of the catalyst in hydro-liquefaction of the TDSF from CTD of SF coal and lignin was further probed. The results suggests that the TDSF from the thermal dissolution (TD) of SF coal contained much more amount of aromatic components and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with 4 and more rings than those from the CTD of SF coal and lignin at the same temperature. TDSFs gave much higher liquefaction conversions and oil yields than SF raw coal in hydro-liquefaction with or without catalyst. Almost all TDSF was converted with much high yield of oil and the TDSF from CTD of SF coal and lignin gave higher yield of oil than that from the TD of SF coal in hydro-liquefaction with Ni-Mo-S/Al2O3 catalyst which demonstrated a good reusability in the hydro-liquefaction of TDSF from the CTD of SF coal and lignin. Carbon deposition was hardly observed in the 4 times recycle used catalyst.
Effect of silicon to aluminum ratio on the selectivity to propene in methanol conversion over H-ZSM-5 zeolites
Hui-wen HUANG, Hui ZHU, Shan-he ZHANG, Qiang ZHANG, Chun-yi LI
2019, 47(1): 74-83
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摘要:
A series of H-ZSM-5 zeolites with a silicon to aluminum ratio of 50-4000 but similar crystal size were synthesized and characterized by XRD, N2 sorption, NH3-TPD and Py-FTIR; the intrinsic effect of silicon to aluminum ratio on the selectivity to propene in the conversion of methanol to propene (MTP) was investigated. The results show that a complete conversion of methanol can be initially achieved over H-ZSM-5 with a silicon to aluminum ratio from 50 to 1600 and then the initial conversion of methanol decreases progressively with further increasing the silicon to aluminum ratio. Meanwhile, the selectivity to propene increases monotonically with an increase in the silicon to aluminum ratio of H-ZSM-5 for MTP with a complete methanol conversion, suggesting that a high Si/Al ratio for H-ZSM-5 may enhance the propagation of the alkene-based methylation/cracking cycle relative to the arene-based methylation/dealkylation cycle in MTP. A critical value of acid density, viz., [AS]S, is required to achieve the maximum propene selectivity for MTP with a complete methanol conversion; this critical[AS]S value is 0.175 μmol/m2 for the H-ZSM-5 zeolite under current reaction conditions.